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Here is a sample; alter the names: Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. , 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. WRITTEN OFFER The source code for any program binaries or compressed scripts that are included with WordPress can be freely obtained at the following URL: https://wordpress.org/download/source/ [:pt]6 cuidados antes de presentear seu filho com um celular[:] – Instituto DimiCuida

[:pt]6 cuidados antes de presentear seu filho com um celular[:]

[:pt]Qual a idade ideal para dar um celular de presente aos filhos? Essa dúvida costuma pairar sobre pais de crianças e de pré-adolescentes, cada vez mais cedo conectados à internet e às redes sociais.
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Em 2018, uma pesquisa brasileira que entrevistou mais de 2 mil pais apontou que quase todos os que tinham filhos entre 10 e 12 anos já ouviram pedidos das crianças por um smartphone próprio. E 72% delas já conseguiram ter um aparelho só seu. Até mesmo entre crianças de 4 a 6 anos, um quarto já tinha o próprio aparelho, apontava a pesquisa, chamada Panorama Mobile Time/Opinion Box.
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Só que a metade dos pais entrevistados não estava satisfeita: achava que os filhos usavam mais o smartphone do que deveriam.
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A questão não é trivial. Um estudo canadense publicado no início deste ano apontou que crianças pequenas que passam muito tempo usando celulares, tablets e outras telas podem ter atrasos no desenvolvimento de linguagem e sociabilidade.
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Outra pesquisa, a TIC Kids Online, ouviu entre outubro de 2018 e março deste ano 3 mil famílias brasileiras com filhos entre 9 e 17 anos a respeito de seus hábitos na internet. Dois terços disseram usar a internet para fazer trabalhos escolares.
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Mas 16% das crianças e jovens entrevistados disseram ter visto online formas de machucar a si mesmo; 14% tiveram contato com conteúdo que mostrava como cometer suicídio. Quase a metade viu alguém ser discriminado na internet nos últimos 12 meses. E 21% dos entrevistados disseram ter deixado de comer ou dormir por causa da internet.
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Isso não significa, porém, que a criança precise ser afastada do universo virtual. A seguir, seis precauções para pais que estejam discutindo se é ou não hora de ceder aos desejos das crianças e adolescentes por um celular próprio.
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1. Idade x maturidade
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Especialistas ouvidos pela BBC News Brasil afirmam que a posse de um celular próprio deve levar em conta não tanto a idade da criança, mas seu grau de maturidade em acessar o mundo que se abre com o smartphone.
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Para avaliar esse estágio de maturidade, a ONG americana Connect Safely sugere que os pais se perguntem:
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A criança entende os custos do celular e de seu uso e se mostra comprometida em cumprir com limites pré-estabelecidos de uso? Ela consegue tomar conta do aparelho (ou tem grande chance de ele acabar quebrado)? Ela já é capaz de gerenciar o próprio tempo, sendo capaz, por exemplo, de parar de trocar mensagens com amigos quando for hora da lição de casa? Ela se compromete a atender mensagens e telefonemas dos pais quando combinado? Ela já tem capacidade de entender os limites em se compartilhar informações privadas, como localização em tempo real, e já tem noções éticas sobre como se comportar em ambientes virtuais?
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E, é claro, existem as demandas de cada família.
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“Alguns pais querem que seus filhos tenham um telefone, para poder contatá-los a qualquer hora. Outros preferem esperar até que sejam adolescentes”, diz a cartilha da Connect Safely. “Para os pequenos, você pode avaliar a ideia de comprar um telefone com menos funcionalidades do que o smartphone. Embora eles permitam a troca de mensagens, servem principalmente para apenas telefonar — as crianças não conseguirão baixar apps de terceiros, alguns não têm câmeras e são mais baratos.”
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Dito isso, é bom lembrar que antes dos 7 ou 8 anos as crianças ainda têm muita dificuldade em entender que o celular é mais do que um brinquedo e a ter autocontrole sobre o tempo ligado na tela, afirma a pediatra Evelyn Eisenstein, professora-associada da UERJ e que ajudou a elaborar o Manual Saúde de Crianças e Adolescentes na Era Digital, da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria.
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2. Combinar limites de tempo
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Mesmo com crianças que já demonstrem sinais de maturidade, é importante fazer combinados prévios e monitorar o tempo de tela, principalmente com as crianças menores.
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Recomendações médicas internacionais sugerem que, até os dois anos, o tempo das crianças diante das telas deve ser zero, por causa dos excessos de estímulos visuais, auditivos e da importância (ainda maior nessa etapa) de atividades concretas.
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À medida que as crianças crescem, pode-se começar a dosar as horas de uso. Mas os especialistas consultados pela BBC News Brasil afirmam que esse tempo total de tela não deve ultrapassar as duas horas por dia. E recomenda-se que não sejam duas horas seguidas, mas sim intercaladas com outras atividades.
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“Isso porque alguns apps e jogos são feitos justamente para estimular esse uso constante, e até mesmo adultos têm dificuldade em dosar o tempo que ficam na tela”, diz Rodrigo Nejm, da ONG Safernet. “Precisamos aprender a controlar o próprio uso das telas e a nos desconectar.”
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É bom, também, combinar de antemão que nem todo o tempo livre deve ser passado diante do celular, e que há momentos, como as refeições, em que devemos nos desconectar. “Se todo o tempo livre está no digital, significa que ele não estará na leitura ou mesmo no ócio, que é algo importante para crianças”, afirma Nejm.
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E no fim de semana, dá para deixar as crianças ficarem mais tempo plugadas? Em teoria sim, diz Eisenstein, mas tão importante quanto controlar o tempo é garantir que não haja prejuízo nas atividades cotidianas – ou seja, que o celular não atrapalhe o tempo de sono (a recomendação para crianças é de pelo menos 9 horas de descanso), de atividades físicas, de estudos e de momentos em família e na natureza.
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Se essa dosagem começar cedo, é maior a chance de que as crianças alcancem a adolescência “sabendo fazer um uso qualificado no celular e com bons modos digitais para a vida”, opina Rodrigo Nejm. “Esse adolescente terá mais capacidade de equilibrar liberdade com responsabilidade e de assumir combinados.”
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3. Monitorar o tipo de uso
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Os especialistas recomendam um esforço dos pais para acompanhar de perto o tipo de uso que as crianças fazem do celular, principalmente se ele estiver conectado à internet.
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“Os pais têm a responsabilidade civil, legal e moral sobre o comportamento dos filhos online e precisam saber o que eles andam fazendo na internet. É a mesma ideia de que não deixamos crianças pequenas sozinhas em uma praça pública”, afirma Eisenstein.
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Para as menores, a recomendação é limitar o uso a “playlists” de vídeos aprovados pelos pais no Netflix e no YouTube Kids, ou jogos educativos. As crianças maiores podem usar mais aplicativos e acessar a internet, mas é bom lembrar que redes sociais são indicadas para quem tem mais de 13 anos.
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A psicóloga Ivelise Fortim, professora da PUC-SP, lembra que todos os jogos vêm com indicações de classificação etária, que você vê ao baixá-los. E que mesmo os jogos educativos virtuais mais incríveis não substituem a importância da brincadeira concreta, do mundo real.
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“É comum que os pais deem o celular para entreter a criança e ela não incomodar. É uma estratégia, mas se for a única estratégia, vai ser difícil mais tarde que a criança não dependa disso para não ficar entediada.”
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Pais podem, também, instalar softwares de controle parental ou criar perfis de celular com restrições etárias, para impedir que as crianças tenham acesso a todos os apps do aparelho.
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4. Explicar os perigos da internet
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“Desde o primeiro acesso à internet, as crianças precisam saber de suas responsabilidades e dos perigos online. Desde saber quais jogos exigem dinheiro para jogar até que elas devem procurar os pais sempre que forem contatadas por alguma pessoa estranha”, opina Nejm.
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“Até mesmo a partir dos quatro anos de idade já dá para começar esse diálogo — de informar as crianças que há pessoas na internet que cometem violência e que o uso excessivo do celular faz mal à saúde, e por isso ela não pode usar sempre.”
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Embora as gerações mais novas sejam nativas digitais, elas não nasceram sabendo como se comportar online. Cabe à família discutir que tipo de informação pode ser compartilhada na internet e como se manifestar de modo respeitoso em conversas virtuais, evitando bullying e ofensas.
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“Como sociedade, todos estamos aprendendo que o anonimato não significa que podemos tratar os outros de modo diferente ou desrespeitoso”, diz o manual da Connect Safely. “Não significa que não há seres humanos por trás dos textos, posts, fotos, avatares e comentários.”
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Nejm também sugere que os pais tenham, com os filhos, “pelo menos discussões mínimas sobre informações falsas e manipulação de imagem na internet, explicando que não é porque alguém que você gosta te mandou que é verdadeiro, e que é importante checar informações”.
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5. Cuidados com adolescentes
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Adolescentes já podem ter direito a algum espaço privado online, opina Nejm. O que não dispensa o acompanhamento familiar.
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“É uma idade importante para discutir que os pais respondem na Justiça pelo comportamento online dos filhos; para falar de bullying virtual, de nudes, de mandar fotos de partes íntimas do corpo para alguém. E lembrar que nada dá a ninguém o direito de expor as partes íntimas de outra pessoa — vazamento de nudes é um ato criminoso”, diz o integrante a SaferNet.
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“Se você achar que seu filho ainda é muito novo para ter essas conversas, talvez não seja a hora de ter um celular ainda. Cada família terá que avaliar seus critérios.”
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Fortim, da PUC-SP, diz que observar o comportamento digital dos jovens também pode dar pistas sobre a saúde mental deles. “Vemos ainda poucos jovens que são de fato viciados em videogames, por exemplo. E quando tem uso excessivo em geral tem outro problema por trás, em que ele não quer pensar — desde timidez ou bullying ou algum problema familiar.”
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Nessa idade, os pais têm o direito de espionar a vida digital dos filhos?
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Nejm desaconselha. “Não acho bom instalar programas espiões (nos celulares adolescentes). A ideia é: será que é pedagógico ficar espiando o que ele está fazendo? O que isso ensina? É também uma quebra de vínculo de confiança, da capacidade de diálogo.”
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6. Refletir sobre os próprios hábitos
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A discussão sobre a vida digital das crianças é uma boa oportunidade para os próprios pais refletirem se eles mesmos são bons exemplos de equilíbrio.
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“Vemos muitos pais hiperconectados questionando o uso excessivo de celular dos filhos”, completa Nejm.
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A família pode estabelecer, de comum acordo, quais são os limites de uso para todo mundo. Algumas sugestões dos especialistas: criar momentos em que todos se comprometam a ficar offline e vetar os celulares durante as refeições, antes de dormir e durante a noite — para evitar que aquele despertar rápido para o xixi da madrugada se converta em horas insones diante do smartphone.
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Fonte: BBC[:]

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