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Como a internet pode estar afetando crianças e adolescentes

A Internet tem sido o caminho mais usado para o acesso a vídeos sobre o jogo do desmaio. Para compreender como o fenômeno pode estar afetando as crianças e adolescentes brasileiros, é preciso compreender a dimensão do que significa a internet no Brasil e como a mesma está sendo utilizada por jovens. Na pesquisa da Tics Kids Online – Brasil, encontramos dados significativos do impacto desse veículo e como faz-se necessário um cuidado mais urgente quando ao acesso a rede.

O ambiente:

“A pesquisa revela que o ambiente para acesso a? rede mais mencionado e? a sala de casa (68%), seguido pelo quarto da/o crianc?a/adolescente (57%). Esse u?ltimo apresentou um aumento de 31 pontos percentuais em relac?a?o ao ano anterior, o que indica um crescimento do uso da Internet em locais em que a crianc?a ou o adolescente encontram maior privacidade. Isso representa, sem du?vida, um desafio para os pais no que se refere a? mediac?a?o do uso da rede. (…) A tende?ncia a? mobilidade e? outro destaque apontado pela pesquisa. O telefone celular e? utilizado por pouco mais da metade das crianc?as e adolescentes para acessar a rede (53%). Em 2012, essa proporc?a?o era de 21%. Ja? o acesso a? Internet por meio dos tablets cresceu de 2%, em 2012, para 16% em 2013. Os computadores de mesa seguem como os dispositivos mais utilizados por esse pu?blico para acessar a Internet: 71%.”


“Do total dos usua?rios de Internet entrevistados pela TIC Kids Online 2012, com idade entre 9 e 16 anos, 60% acessaram a rede de suas casas, ao passo que, na Europa, o i?ndice foi de 87%; 42% acessaram das escolas, no Brasil, e 63%, na Europa. Os i?ndices de pessoas que acessaram das casas de parentes ou amigos estiveram pro?ximos (38% e 42%, respectivamente). Entretanto, enquanto apenas 12% dos europeus acessaram de cybercafe?s e lanhouses, no Brasil, a porcentagem atingiu 35%. Nesse contexto, esses locais pu?blicos sa?o particularmente relevantes para o acesso tanto da populac?a?o de baixa renda quanto dos que residem em zonas rurais.”

Situações de risco:

“Em relac?a?o a situac?o?es de risco vividas on-line, 38% das crianc?as e dos adolescentes entre 11 e 17 anos de idade adicionaram pessoas que nunca conheceram pessoalmente a?s suas listas de amigos ou contatos nas redes sociais. As faixas de idade mais altas reportam mais atividades de risco potencial em relac?a?o aos mais novos.
“Entre as atividades de mediac?a?o dos pais e responsa?veis, a conversa sobre o que os filhos fazem na Internet e? a ac?a?o mais citada (81%). Ja? 43% dos pais e responsa?veis afirmam realizar atividades junto com os filhos na rede. Quando questionados sobre os riscos, apenas 8% dos pais e responsa?veis acreditam que seu filho tenha passado por alguma situac?a?o de inco?modo ou constrangimento na Internet – percentual semelhante ao verificado em 2012 (6%).”


“Crianc?as e adolescentes esta?o preocupados com uma larga gama de riscos on-line. Uma visa?o ampla e atualizada sobre tais riscos colabora com os esforc?os destinados a mitiga?-los, assim como oferece insumos para as ac?o?es que ajudem crianc?as e adolescentes a lidar com eles. Considerando que 9% dos entrevistados entre 9 e 10 anos e que um em cada sete dos entrevistados de 9 a 16 anos passaram por algum inco?modo ou constrangimento na Internet no u?ltimo ano, e? importante promover a conscientizac?a?o e outras pra?ticas de seguranc?a direcionadas a crianc?as cada vez mais novas. Chamar a atenc?a?o de adolescentes e de seus pais e professores continua sendo uma prioridade, ja? que aquilo que e? considerado inco?modo muda conforme a idade. Comenta?rios maldosos e conteu?dos problema?ticos criados por usua?rios (como sites a favor da anorexia) sa?o uma preocupac?a?o particularmente importante para adolescentes, por exemplo. Ale?m disso, mensagens de seguranc?a devem ser atualizadas para se adaptar a?s novas formas de acesso: 33% das crianc?as e adolescentes agora acessam a rede usando celulares ou aparelhos porta?teis. Laptops, celulares, videogames e outros aparelhos mo?veis permitem a?s crianc?as e adolescentes acessarem a rede em qualquer lugar, a qualquer hora, longe da supervisa?o dos pais. Novos servic?os (como aqueles baseados na geolocalizac?a?o) tambe?m podem conduzir a novos riscos (MASCHERONI; O?LAFSSON, 2014).”


“O estudo comparativo entre as pesquisas EU Kids Online, da Europa, e TIC Kids Online Brasil revela uma situac?a?o de vulnerabilidade maior das crianc?as brasileiras em relac?a?o a?s europeias, o que pode ser analisado a partir de alguns dados (BARBOSA et al., 2013). Por exemplo, mais de dois terc?os das crianc?as entrevistadas na pesquisa brasileira de 2012 (de 68% a 78%, variando em relac?a?o a? condic?a?o socioecono?mica familiar) com experie?ncias on-line acreditam saber mais sobre Internet do que seus pais ou responsa?veis. Ale?m disso, desse montante, o estudo indica que mais da metade dessas crianc?as (53%) relataram que pais e responsa?veis na?o usam a Internet, ao passo que, na Europa, apenas 28% a 46% das crianc?as responderam saber mais do que os pais sobre a Internet.”


“O fato ainda de o Brasil estar entre os tre?s pai?ses com maior nu?mero de perfis de usua?rios cadastrados no Facebook, atualmente a maior rede social de compartilhamento, pode se constituir tambe?m um indi?cio de maior vulnerabilidade das crianc?as brasileiras aos riscos das atividades on-line. Afinal, desde muito novas aprendem a burlar os limites impostos para o cadastramento nesse e em outros sites de relacionamento, sem que para isso precisem declarar seus dados pessoais com precisa?o, sobretudo a idade. Esse seria um fator de risco importante para as crianc?as brasileiras, visto que comec?am mais cedo a embrenhar-se na complexidade de uma rede como o Facebook, haja vista que, entre as crianc?as usua?rias de Internet de 9 a 10 anos de idade entrevistadas, 43% declararam ter perfil naquela rede, embora a idade oficial permitida seja de 13 anos.”
Porque prevenir:


“O uso da Internet pelas crianc?as merece atenc?a?o e ac?o?es intensivas que levem em conta o envolvimento e a capacitac?a?o de pais (ou responsa?veis), educadores, gestores de programas, programadores e designers de software brasileiros, tanto em relac?a?o à poli?ticas pu?blicas quanto à iniciativas privadas, no contexto de elaborac?a?o de regras pro?prias e urgentes para otimizar atividades on-line com seguranc?a e que reduzam riscos de um ponto de vista e?tico, ou seja, sem restringir os jovens de usufruir dos benefi?cios em rede para a sua formac?a?o.”


“?É sabido que de 68% a 78% das crianc?as, variando ao longo do espectro socioecono?mico, consideram que sabem mais de Internet do que seus pro?prios pais (BARBOSA et al., 2013). A destreza de jovens e crianc?as no uso da Internet, pore?m na?o pode ser confundida com total discernimento e capacidade de agir racionalmente diante de esti?mulos de consumo. A condic?a?o de vulnerabilidade em relac?a?o a? publicidade continua presente na Internet; essa e? uma circunsta?ncia peculiar e inerente a? infa?ncia. Por mais que a crianc?a domine muito bem a tecnologia e muitas vezes use os aparatos tecnolo?gicos ate? mesmo com mais facilidade do que os adultos, isso na?o significa que esta? apta a compreender o conteu?do contido nas mi?dias e, mais especificamente, a publicidade e seu cara?ter persuasivo.”
Alerta aos pais:


“?É necessa?rio atualizar os antigos conselhos de que os pais devem supervisionar o uso da Internet por parte dos filhos, na medida em que o acesso a? Internet se torna mais personalizado e novas ferramentas de seguranc?a e orientac?o?es sa?o requisitadas. Sem pregar o alarmismo ou sensacionalismo, pais/responsa?veis precisam estar atentos a? natureza dos riscos que seus filhos podem encontrar on-line. E? preciso chamar a atenc?a?o para o dia?logo e para um melhor entendimento entre pais e filhos acerca das atividades realizadas pelos jovens on-line. Aprimorar a compreensa?o dos pais/responsa?veis sobre os riscos na Internet e? particularmente importante naqueles pai?ses que apresentam ni?veis menores de conscientizac?a?o sobre a experie?ncia de risco dos filhos ou nos quais a disposic?a?o dos pais para discutir assuntos de teor sexual e? menor.”


“A ideia de que o que os pais fazem na?o e? valorizado ou de que as crianc?as e adolescentes na?o ira?o seguir suas orientac?o?es e? infundada. As evide?ncias revelam um retrato muito mais positivo, no qual as crianc?as recebem bem o interesse e as atividades de mediac?a?o dos pais, enquanto os pais expressam confianc?a nas habilidades de seus filhos. E? importante a manutenc?a?o dessa situac?a?o a? medida que a Internet se torna mais complexa e mais integrada a? vida cotidiana.”


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